Journal "Inland Water Biology"

№ 4 за 2000 год

A.I. Kuz'michev

The tendency of hydrobotany development in Russia.

In point of differentiation and integration of scientific knowledge the history of hydrophilous plants study, modern state of the problem and leads for further research are discussed.

O.A. Lebedeva, A.G. Lapirov

To biology of Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosh.: seedlings germination and initial stages their development under laboratory conditions.

Seed germination of Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosch with undifferentiated embryo, and the initial stages of seedling development depending upon different storage conditions, presowing cultivation and germination conditions are considered. In order to achieve complete ripening, the seeds require a 2-month storage in a dry place. In this case being germinated under a slight water layer under the temperature 16-20°C they guarantee high sprouting (final germination 74%). Stratification accelerates up the embrio maturation and increases duration of initial development stages for seedlings. It is supposed that the seeds of Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix) Bosh possess not deep or (and) intermediate type of physiological rest.

V.G. Gagarin

Fauna of free-living nematodes from litoral of Kurilskoe Lake (Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula) and description of Rhitis eximius sp.n. (Nematoda, Rhabditida).

Fauna of free-living nematodes from litoral of Kurilskoe Lake, situated in Kamchatka Peninsula has been studied; 44 free-living species have been found, one of them is described as a new species. Species list, descriptions and illustrations of Rhitis eximius sp.n. and undeterminated females of the genus Theristus are given.

A.P. Mylnikov, Z.M. Мylnikova, A.I. Tsvetkov

The fine structure of amoeboid flagellate Cercomonas plasmodialis Mylnikov.

The extrusomes (rod-like trichocysts and osmiophilic spherical granules) have been discovered in the cell of amoeboid flagellate. The mitochondria of different shape have vesicular cristae. The rootlet system of flagella contains cross banded structure (rhizoplast) which produces microtubular cone and two microtubular bands. The nucleus, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum are of the usual structure. One or two microbody with little granular contents lies close to the posterior end of the nucleus. The similarities of Cercomonas plasmodialis and cercomonads and other amoeboid flagellates are discussed.

А.G. Okhapkin, S.I. Genkal

Composition and ecology of dominating species of planktonic diatoms in watercourses of the Mid Volga basin. Species of genus Stephanodiscus Ehr.

The structure and main elements of ecology of mass species of diatom algae of the genus Stephanodiscus Ehr. in different (as for their morphometry and hydrochemical composition are concerned) waterflows of the Middle Volga system have been studied (Volga river prior to the creation of Cheboksary reservoir, Gorky and Cheboksary reservoirs, a sistem of side branches of these reservoirs). The regularities of biomass dinamics of the dominant species of diatoms belonging to the genus Stephanodiscus Ehr. have been characterized in connection with space and time factors of environment.

V.G. Deviatkin, N.Ju. Meteleva, I.V. Mitropolskaya

Hydrophysical factors of the littoral phytoplankton productivity: effect of hydrophysical factors on chlorophyll a content.

The relationship between some hydrophysical factors (temperature, water transparency, influx of solar radiation, amount of precipitation) and chlorophyll a content in the littoral of the Rybinsk reservoir was studied. It was found that the peak in phytoplankton productivity did not coincide with the peak of the solar radiation and was observed at its influx onto the surface of the reservoir at a level of 20-25 Mj/m² per day. Chlorophyll a content and its specific activity were directly proportional to a water temperature. The same relationship was observed between chlorophyll a content and rate of phytoplankton photosynthesis and oxygen concentration in the water. The supersaturation of water with oxygen was registered when chlorophyll a content was more than 30 µg/l. Dynamics of chlorophyll a content varied in inverse propotion to the amount of atmospheric precipitation and water transparency.

V.A. Yelizarova

Dead cells of algae in phytoplankton of the Rybinsk reservoir.

The content of dead cells in phytoplankton has been studied in a phytotic layer of the deep zone of the Rybinsk resevoir using the method of staining by methylene blue. Their portion was found to be rather high and amounted to 30 % of their total abundance. It differs significantly betweеn diatoms and green algae - 40 % and 6 %, of the group abundance correspondingly and changes seasonally. The maximum content is observed during mass vegetation of the group (spring and summer), and the minimum is in autumn. The content of dead cells is dependent on a stage of the development of a certain peak in a group abundance: it is maximal during the peak of abundance and minimal during intensive growing. A high content of dead cells in the surface layer sometimes up to 100 % is typical for diatoms Asterionella formosa, Diatoma tenuis, Fragilaria crotonensis, Sceletonema subsalsum.

Е.S. Bikbulatov

Cyclicity in processes of biochemical transformation of natural organic substances under static conditions.

This research was performed to investigate the behaviour of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick. culture in media of natural water from various sources under multiple long-term (15-30 days) artificial variation of lighting conditions ranging from a phase of long natural alternation of the day and night-time favourable for cells reproduction up to a period of complete darkness promoting the processes of cell material destruction. The processes have been monitored by changes in contents of the main forms of nutrients - nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as by the cells growth and destruction. It is shown that under conditions of the static culture regardless of a chemical composition of the natural waters the given periodic changes in light intensity cause only short-term cyclicity (2 cycles) in the processes of organic matter production and destruction.

A.N. Dzuyban, I.N. Krylova

Assessment of the state of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos in the Rybinsk reservoir in the vicinity of Cherepovets city (Vologda district).

Structural and function of bacterial plankton and benthos, as indicators of the sanitary conditions, and the relation between aerobic and anaerobic processes in water and bottom sediments of the Rybinsk reservoir and small rivers, subjected to long-term impact of the municipal and industrial waste waters of Cherepovets city were studied. Based on the results of these studies, the ecological state of the given water area was assessed and heavily polluted areas were found. It was noted that accumulation of toxic substances in the sediments of the Cherepovets area turned them into the source of secondary pollution.

G.I. Markevich, A.A. Ovcharova, V.A. Gremyatchich

The rhythmic activity of the mouthparts in fresh-water calanids and its determining factors.

The frequency of undulations of mouthparts in four species of fresh-water calanids was examined using stroboscopic method. This frequency is a rather constant species- and sex-specific characteristic. The rythms of undulations in Eudiaptomus gracilis displays strong temperature and food dependence. The beating frequency of mouthparts does not depend on exposition duration. Possible influence of the discovered effect of temperature on rythmic activity of the mouthparts of calanids is discussed.

A.Yu. Yemelyanova, T.A. Temerova, A.G. Degermendzhy

Experimental study of feeding and growth of fresh-water shrimp Gammarus lacustris Sars (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) from lake Shira (Khakasia).

Feeding and growth of fresh-water shrimp Gammarus lacustris Sars from Shira lake were studied under experimental conditions with lake biota as fodder. Experiments were carried out in species habitat-simulated conditions. Nutrition spectrum, somatic increment and specific growth rate of shrimp have been determined. The young and adult shrimps preferred Arctodiaptomus salinus to Brachionus plicatilis (compared to adult individuals, consumption of Arctodiaptomus salinus by the young shrimps was much higher). Specific growth rate of juvenile individuals consuming lake biota has been found to be 3.5 times higher as compared to a single component fodder.

V.A. Kuznetsov, I.F. Galanin

Species diversity, abundance and growth of young fish in the upper parts of the Kuibyshev reservoir.

Changes of species composition, abundance and growth of fingerlings living under various ecological conditions in the upper part of the Kuibyshev reservoir were studied. It is found that the Shannon index is determined by a number of species, their abundance and dominance and depends on ecological conditions of their habitats. The regions of the reservoir are of various importance for reproduction of fish stock as have different areas of the littoral shallows where the young fish feed and grow.

T.S. Zhiteneva

Сhanges in body proportions of bream Abramis brama L. (Cyprinidae) of different populations in point of periodization of late ontogenesis.

In late ontogenesis of bream (individuals from a year to the oldest age) of populations in the Upper Volga reservoirs and demineralized parts of the Baltic Sea the same number of stages and transitional periods (t.p.) of development were found with different boundaries and duration (by fish length). The mean values of external body parts (plastic features) calculated within stages and t.p. allowed to find regularities in changes of fish body proportions associated with periodization of development. Each stage and t.p. differed by specific proportions of the fish body similar in all bream populations. Regularities were found at each interval of ontogenesis in spite of the difference between mean values of external parts of the body characteristic of fish populations at each interval of ontogenesis. It was established that similar length and age can't be a basis for comparison mean values of body parts (plastic features) in fish of different populations as rates of their growth and development are different, i.e. the boundaries and duration of stages and t.p. of late ontogenesis.

V.I. Kiyashko, Yu.V. Slyn'ko

Trophic relationship between fish in Lake Galichskoye (Коstroma district).

Qualitative and quantitative feeding characteristics of the common in abundance and biomass fish species from Lake Galichskoye are presented. It is shown that an intensive feeding competition among mass fish species exists in the lake. A degree of zooplankton and zoobenthos grazing is high and there free food resources are absent in the lake. The main consumer of zooplankton is immature bream of age from 1+ up to 4+; of zoobenthos - mature bream of age from 8+ up to 14+ and ruffe all age groups. The possible reasons of intensive feeding competition of these species are discussed. The scheme of fish trophic relations is presented.

P.A. Gdovskii, N.N. Ruzhinskaya

The protective function of microvillar supporting cells from the olfactory epithelium of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Peters, 1852.

Chronical dichlorvos (DDVP) effect on ultrastructure of the olfactory epithelium of tilapia was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopic method. It has been demonstrated that fish exposure to the toxicant is accompanied by gypertrophic changes in structure of the microwillar supporting cells with absolute safety of receptor elements of the epithelium. A crucial role of supporting cells in realization of the epithelium protection against xenobiotics is discussed.

R.A. Zaprudnova

Effect of adrenaline at potassium concentration in the blood plasma of bream during stress and spawn.

The maximum effect of injected adrenaline on potassium ions concentration in blood plasma of fish was observed during the resistance stage of general adaptation syndrome. This stage was also characterized by minimum content of plasma chatecholamines, mean (optimal) concentration gradient on cell membrane and mean (optimal) speed of ionic transport. Similarity the change of studed parameters during reproduction and at stress is shown.

T.B. Lapirova

The effect of different malathion concentrations on gematological parameters of carp yearlings.

The change in peripheric blood structure of carp yearlings after a 7-days exposition in malathion solutions of different concentrations and subsequent holding of experimental fish in clean water for a 7 weeks term was studied. It was found, that the pesticide in concentration of 1 mg/l has influenced stimulatingly the leukopoiesis and percentage of juvenile neutrophile forms decreased. On the contrary the toxicant effect in concentration of 10 mg/l, has caused a decrease of leucocyte abundance index and statistically significant lymphopenia and neutrophilia. When fish were exposed in malathion solution of 5 mg/l, no considerable shifts of the studied parameters were noticed, however, after the recovering period the picture of blood differed greatly from the control. For the fish from all experimental groups a reliable decrease of leucocyte abundance index was observed during a long time after the end of pesticide effect.

L.V. Balabanova, V.M. Stepanova

Chronic effect of naphthalene and dichlovos on the immunocompetent cells of a Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters).

Effects of two month-long exposure to naphthalene (1.5 mg/l) and organophosphorus insecticide dichlorvos (DDVF: 0.46 mg/l) on immunocytes of a Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters) was studied. Using light and electron microscope techniques it was revealed that the exposure of fish to toxicants led to decrease in lymphoid organs index and the number of lymphocytes, increase in the number of phagocytes and immature cells, the disruption of mitochondria structure in immunocytes. The effect of exposure to DDVF were more considerable in comparison with effects of a exposure of naphthalene.

I.N. Krylova, V.M. Stepanova, I.I. Tomilina, I.V. Chalova

Assessment of toxic and mutagenic properties of waste waters from the main industrial works of Rybinsk city.

The substances having toxic and mutagenic effect on test-objects in waste waters of the main industrial works of Rybinsk city were found. The presence of such substances in waste waters is a source of permanent pollution of the Volga in the area where the water is used for municipal and fisheries purposes. Ceriodaphnia affinis, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Salmonella typhimurium, Chlorella vulgaris and Allium cepa were used as test-objects.

A.I. Bacanov, М.V. Gapeeva, L.P. Grebenyuk, Ju.V. Yershov, I.I. Tomilina

Quality assessment of bottom sediments in the Upper Volga (Yaroslavl district).

The quality of the Upper Volga sediments within the limits of the Yaroslavl region was estimated with an extended triad approach. It was unsatisfactory on a third of the stations. The grey silt accumulating organic pollutants and heavy metals was characterized first by low quality.

G.I. Markevich

On the book by O.P. Negrobov "Principles of ecology and nature management. Hydrosphere".

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