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Journal "Inland Water Biology"

№ 1 за 2013 год

T.I. Kazantseva

Experience of Balance Modeling of Lake Ecosystems (by the Example of Circumpolar Lake Krivoye).

Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 1, Russia

e-mail: model@zin.ru

By the example of circumpolar Lake Krivoye (western coast of the White Sea, Karelia) the concepts of balance modeling are described. The reliability of original is marked noticed, as the necessary condition for trustworthy modeling of energy flows in the lake ecosystem. The problems, which rise during the calculation, and the way of their solution are discussed. The results of energy balance calculation in Lake Krivoye during vegetation periods of 2003–2005 are presented.

Keywords: water ecosystem, energy flows, balance modeling, northern lakes.

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K.S. Fishman*, V.N. Akimov*, N.E. Suzina*, M.B. Vainshtein*,**, X. Liang***

Bacteria Desulfobulbus sp. Strain BH from the Freshwater Lake in the Province Guizhou, China.

* Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms RAS, 142290 Moscow region, Pushchino, Pr. Nauki, 5, Russia


** Pushchino State University, 142290 Moscow region, Pushchino, Pr. Nauki, 3, Russia


*** Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 550002 Guiyang, Guizhou, Guanshui Road, 46, P.R. China

e-mail: fishmanks@rambler.ru

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the anaerobic sediments of the freshwater Lake Baihua (province Guizhou, China) at the eutrophicated sites polluted with heavy metals, especially with mercury. Representatives of the genus Desulfobulbus dominated among SRB. Detailed study on the dominating isolate Desulfobulbus sp., signed as the strain BH, showed that it differs by genetic, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics from other species of the genus. Strain BH has a wide spectrum of utilizing organic substrates and showes high activity of the hydrogen sulfide production, thus, it can be considered as an important component of microbial community in the polluted lake.

Keywords: sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfobulbus, distribution, diversity, freshwater lake.

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V.G. Papchenkov

The Degree of Оvergrowing of the Rybinsk Reservoir and Productivity of its Vegetation Cover.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: papch@mail.ru

The data obtained in 2003 and 2009 on the degree of encrustation and macrophyte biomass in the Rybinsk Reservoir are presented. It is shown that in years with low water level vast areas of shallows with thickets of coastal aquatic plants, dry up and the degree of overgrowing of the reservoir and the biomass of macrophytes within its area reduce. At high water level in the reservoir the shallows are flooded that increases the degree of the reservoir overgrowing. It is higher than the previous peak that testifies to a pulsating character of overgrowths and to a general tendency to slow reduction of the reservoir area.

Keywords: overgrowth, productivity, vegetation cover, the Rybinsk Reservoir.

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G.F. Lyashenko

Dynamics of Hydrophilic Phytocenoses in the Littoral of the Rybinsk Reservoir.

State Research Institute of Lakes and Rivers Fisheriy, 199053 St. Petersburg, Embankment Makarova, 26, Russia

e-mail: gfl@mail.ru

The dynamics of the overgrowths of the most common phytocenoses of higher aquatic vegetation was studied in the littoral of the Rybinsk Reservoir from 1986 till 2008. Long-term changes in a the floristic composition of phytocenoses have been found at the geobotanical sites.

Keywords: dynamics, succession, phytocenosis higher aquatic vegetation, Rybinsk reservoir.

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А.V. Krylov

Quantitative development of zooplankton in waterbodies and watercourses of the Great lakes Depression (Mongolia).

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: krylov@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The quantitative indices of the zooplankton of reservoirs (lakes, water bodies) and water currents (rivers, ducts) of the Big Lakes Valley (Mongolia) are analyzed. The maximum quantity of the zooplankton is registered in freshwater reservoirs. Irrespective of the reservoir type the greatest number and a biomass of the zooplankton are marked in littoral zone, where associations differ by high abundance of Rotifers, including species indicator of eutrophic waters that testifies high degree of an organic load from the water body area. In comparison with the data received in the late seventies of the last century the biomass of the zooplankton was reduced against the increase of part of Rotifers and Crustaceans. Most brightly these changes are expressed in fresh-water ecosystems. Organization of the zooplankton of investigated water bodies completely corresponds to the patterns described for regulated section the Volga River. The quantitative development of the zooplankton of water currents are depended on character of a river head source, of location of sampling stations on a longitudinal profile of a watercourse, and also of water flow velocity.

Keywords: lakes, reservoirs, water currents, zooplankton, abundance, biomass, share of taxonomic groups.

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S.G. Denisenko*, M.A. Barbashova**, V.V. Skvortsov***, V.P. Belyakov**, E.A. Kurashov**

The Results of Assessment of the Ecological State of Zoobenthos Communities According to the "Difference of evenness" Index (DE').

* Zoological Institute of RAS, 199034 St.-Petersburg, University Embankment, 1, Russia


** Institute of Limnology RAS, 196105 St.-Petersburg, ul. Sevastyanova, 9, Russia


*** State Polar Academy of Ministry of Education and Science of RF, 192007 St.-Petersburg, ul. Voronezhskaya, 79, Russia

e-mail: dest@zin.ru

Difference of evenness – index (DE') is offered for assessment of the ecological state of zoobenthos communities. The index is deduced on the basis of the Shannon indexes calculated according to abundance and biomass data and represents a difference between these informational estimations (Shannon diversity) of evenness of species in any concrete community. Conclusions made by Pianka about predomination of organisms with r and K life strategy in the communities, which were impacted and unimpacted by ecological stress as well as the ABC-curves method suggested by Warwick were used as the basis of functioning mechanism for the suggested index. The examples of index applicability are demonstrated by materials assessment collected in freshwater, estuarine and marine waterbodies during one-time surveys and long-term monitoring observations. The results are compared with zoobenthos assessments made on the basis of some other indexes. Conclusions concerning the efficiency of DE' – are made indexes and some its advantages in comparison to other indexes are shown.

Keywords: zoobenthos, community structure, information diversity, ecological stress, biotic indexes.

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M.G. Talykina, V.V. Krylov, Yu.G. Izyumov, Yu.V. Chebotareva

The Effect of a Typical Magnetic Storm on Mitosis in Embryo Cells, Length and Weight of Praelarvs of Roach (Rutilus rutilus L.).

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: talykina@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The action of the tested variants of a typical magnetic storm has a biological effect on the cellular and organismal level in prelarvae stage. The impact of this environmental factor leads to increased mitotic activity in blastocysts, could trigger an earlier hatching of embryos and has no negative impact on the size-weight characteristics of free embryos.

Keywords: mitosis, embryo cells, praelarvs, blastocytes.

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A.V. Tyutin, G.I. Izvekova

Infection of Mollusks and Fish by the Trematode Apophallus muehlingi (Jagerskiold, 1898) and its Interrelations With Intermediate Hosts.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: tyutin@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

In the Rybinsk Reservoir (Upper Volga basin), a sharp decrease in occurrence of Apophallus muehlingi (Jagerskiold) parthenites was found in the population of Ponto-Caspian snail Lithoglyphus naticoides Pfeiffer in 2009–2010. In the muscles of cyprinid underyearlings (ide Leuciscus idus (L.) and dace Leuciscus leuciscus (L.)), interspecific differences in protein content were revealed following their infection by the metacercariae in the experimental environment. In both fish species, the helminth infection caused an increase in glycogen content. Reduction of motor activity induced by the muscle damage might be the main reason of the observed changes in biochemical characteristics.

Keywords: helminths, Trematoda, fish underyearlings, mollusks, glycogen, protein.

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G.I. Izvekova

Activity of Digestive Enzymes in the Burbot Lota lota (Linnaeus) Infected by Eubothrium rugosum (Batch) (Cestoda, Pseudophylliea).

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: izvekov@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

A non-uniform distribution was found in the activity of the major digestive hydrolases from the anterior to the posterior section of the burbot’s intestine. In the burbot infected by cestodes Eubothrium rugosum, the activities of intestinal proteinases and glycosidases decreased. The invasion had a greater effect on the activity of proteolytic enzymes. The activity of the host digestive enzymes decreased even at a low invasion rate.

Keywords: Lota lota, Eubothrium rugosum, digestive enzymes.

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V.V. Kuz’mina, D.V. Garina

The Effects of Peripherally Injected Serotonin on Feeding and Locomotor Activities in Carps Cyprinus Carpio L.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: vkuzmina@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The influence of intraperitoneal (IP) and intramuscular (IM) injections of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, 10 µg/g body weight) on a number of parameters of feeding behavior of carps Cyprinus carpio L. has been investigated. It was shown that exogenous serotonin decreased various parameters of feeding and locomotor activities, and IM injections caused stronger inhibitory effect than IP injections. IP administration of this biogenic amine reduced the food intake of fishes of different age groups, induced an increase of the search reaction time (the latency to leave the starting chamber after its front wall was raised, latency period for feeding of fish) in carp fingerlings in the experiments with “single” feeding. IM injections significantly lowered food intake of carp fingerlings in 1, 5 and 53 h, two other parameters – during all period of observation. In the experiments with “group” feeding of fish food intake, duration of “group” feeding and total duration of feeding decreased during all period of observation after IM administration and in 1 h after IP injections only. Duration of “single” feeding and locomotor activity were changed less distinctly. The strongest effect of serotonin (up to 100%) was shown for duration of “group” feeding. It was supposed that inhibitory effects of exogenous 5-HT on feeding and locomotor activities of carps were caused by its peripheral effects as well as by partial involving of central effect.

Keywords: carp Cyprinus carpio, serotonin, intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections, feeding behavior, locomotor activity, food intake, duration of "group" and "single" feeding.

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N.M. Mineeva, V.G. Tereshchenko

Application of the Phase Portrait Method for Analysis of Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton Productivity in a Large Plain Reservoir.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: mineeva@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

Using the dynamic phase portrait method, variations in phytoplankton productivity in the course of its seasonal succession in the Rybinsk Reservoir are analyzed during years with different hydroclimatic conditions. Stable steady states and critical points in phytoplankton functioning as well as its dynamics in aberration from those states are found and analyzed. It is shown that seasonal dynamics of the autotrophic community and the rate of its reconstruction depends on hydroclimatic characteristics and also varies in different parts of the reservoir (reaches). The dynamics of phytoplankton, described in terms of the phase portraits method, agrees with the known patterns of behavior of biological systems.

Keywords: dynamic phase portrait method, phytoplankton, chlorophyll, seasonal dynamics, environmental factors, Rybinsk Reservoir.

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V.I. Martemуanov

Assessment of the Physiological State of Carp Cyprinus carpio L. According to Water Content in the Organism.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: martem@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

A simple method that makes it possible to assess two different levels of the physiological state of carp by water content in the organism is suggested. Low water content (2.61 ± 0.04 g Н₂О per 1 g of dry weight (72.3 ± 0.27%)) in the fish body is associated with the state promoting the organism growth. Higher content of water (3.63 ± 0.06 g Н₂О per 1 g of dry weight) (78.4 ± 0.26%)) in fishes is associated with the physiological state of fishes that depends on the organism resistance to the environment that is unfavorable for its growth.

Keywords: carp, physiological state, growth, water content.

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