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Journal "Inland Water Biology"

№ 2 за 2013 год

S.I. Genkal*, E.Yu. Mitrophanova**, M.S. Kulikovskiy*

Morphological Variability, Taxonomy and Distribution of Cyclotella bodanica Eulenstein (Bacillariophyta) in Russia.

*Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.


**Institute for Water and Environmental Problems SB RAS, 656038 Barnaul, Altai Krai, ul. Molodezhnaya, 1, Russia.

e-mail: genkal@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The morphology of 6 populations of a rare freshwater species of diatom algae, Сyclotella bodanica Eulenstein, from lakes of different geographic location is studied using SEM techniques. It is shown that some features (number of striae and marginal fultoportulae in 10 m, number of thin costae in alveoli and their brunching, relief of the central area and peripheral zone, arrangement of rimoportulae) vary to a greater extent, than it is indicated in the literature. The obtained results make it possible to improve the diagnosis of this species and refer C. intermedia to its synonymy. Similarities and differences between C. bodanica and morphologically similar species of the complex C. comta/C. radiosa are also considered. The distribution of С. bodanica in waterbodies of Russia is specified.

Keywords: Bacillariophyta, Cyclotella bodanica, C. intermedia, C. comta, C. radiosa, morphology, electron microscopy, distribution.

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A.I. Kopylov, Ya.V. Stroinov, E.A. Zabotkina, A.V. Romanenko, T.S. Maslennikova

Heterotrophic Microorganisms and Viruses in the Gorky Reservoir During the Period of Extremely High Water Temperatures.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: kopylov@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

In the anomalously hot summer of 2010, the water temperature in Gorky Reservoir in July reached 27–33ºC. An intense cyanobacterial water bloom was observed in the lake part of the waterbody. On average for the reservoir, the bacterioplankton number (11.58 ± 1.25 × 106 cells/ml), biomass (889 ± 96 mg/m³), and production (169 ± 32 mg C/(m³ × day) were twice as great as in years with the normal temperature regime. Changes in these parameters were more significant in the lake part than in the river part of the reservoir. The number (4.86 ± 0.75 × 103 cells/ml) and biomass (138 ± 9 mg/m³) of heterotrophic nanoflagellates were correspondingly 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than in normal years. In 2010, the number of planktonic viral particles (Nv) in the reservoir averaged 48.89 ± 9.54 × 106 particles/ml and virus-induced mortality of bacteria (VMB) – 26.9 ± 4.6% of the bacterial production. The Nv and VMB values in the lake part exceeded 1.5 and 1.8 times correspondingly those in the river part.

Keywords: viruses, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, primary production of phytoplankton, reservoir.

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A.G. Rogozin

Zooplankton of the argazi reservoir (Southern Urals, Russia) and its Many years' changes.

Ilmen State Reserve of Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 456317 Miass, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russia.

e-mail: rogozin57@gmail.com

Zooplankton of the greatest Argazi reservoir (Miass River, Southern Urals) was studied for the first time tor the last 40 years. A total of 49 species and forms of zooplankton, among them 32 species and forms of Rotifera, 7 species of Copepoda and 10 species of Cladocera. Asplanchna henrietta Langhans, Trichocerca tenior (Gosse) and Filinia terminalis (Plate) were recorded including new species in the Southern Urals fauna. Rotifers are the most abundant group in the reservoir with the highest species diversity. The zooplankton was most abundant in overgrown bays, and less abundant in the most polluted upstream. Nevertheless, in polluted areas the diversity of zooplankton was high and biomass was more than 5 g/m³, so the negative impact of pollution is not proved. Dynamics of structural features is associated with seasonal biomass changes but not with the pollution level. For 45 years since the middle of the 1960-s some species disappeared and some appeared, and recent years show great increasing of number of rotifers and of some crustaceans. The increase in abundance was shown especially for thermophylic species and forms and abundance of thermophobic organisms decreased. Number and biomass of zooplankton increased up to 5–10 times since middle of 1960-th. The most likely reason of many years’ changes in plankton of reservoir is global warming.

Keywords: zooplankton, rotifers, crustaceans, reservoir, South Ural.

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A.V. Krylov, D.V. Kulakov, I.V. Chalova, O.L. Tselmovich

The Effect of vital activity products of hydrophilic birds and the Degree of overgrowth on zooplankton in Experimental microcosms.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia

e-mail: krylov@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

During the experiments, conducted in microcosms at different concentrations of vital activity products of hydrophilic birds (VAPB) and the degree of overgrowth, the basic changes in the chemical composition of water parameters of the zooplankton have been found. It is shown the in put of VAPB during the time close to the natural nesting period leads to the increase in concentrations of organic compounds in water, diversity of crustaceans, the total abundance and biomass of communities due to Copepoda, which portion also increases among dominants at the decrease of Rotifera. As the degree of the overgrowth of microcosms which are subjected to the effect of VAPB increases the quantitative parameters of Rotifera development decrease and the abundance and biomass of communities increases due to Cladocera.

Keywords: vital activity products of birds, the degree of overgrowth, organic matter, planktonic invertebrates.

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G.Kh. Shcherbina

The Species composition and structure of macrozoobenthos of Lake sevan during the period of its water level Increase.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: gregory@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

A list of zoobenthic macroinvertebrate species found in Lake Sevan in 2007 and 2010 is presented. The list includes 38 species, 14 of which are found in the lake for the first time. Chironomid larvae and pupae are the most diverse component of the lake’s macrozoobenthos (27 species). In Big Sevan the maximum biomass of macrozoobenthos (24.82 g/m²) was recorded in sublittoral; in Small Sevan – in profundal zone (14.31 g/m²). In 2010, chironomids dominated by biomass in the sublittoral and profundal regions on the Lake accounting for 48.9 and 60.3% respectively. The littoral benthos was dominated by oligochaetes (50.2%).

Keywords: Lake Sevan, fauna, macrozoobenthos, chironomids, oligochaetes, biomass.

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S.N. Liabzina

Invertebrate Necrobiont in the Littoral Zone of Different Lakes in Karelia.

Petrozavodsk State University, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Pr. Lenina, 33, Republic Karelia.

e-mail: slyabzina@petrsu.ru

The complex of necrobionts in the littoral zone in lakes of Karelia of different trophy is considered. This research involved the decomposition of different carcasses in the littoral zone of lakes. Fifty-eight macroinvertebrate taxa colonized the carcasses. It is found that community of necrobionts depends on the mass of carcasses and the structure of skin. The succession of necrobionts during decomposition is analyzed in the paper.

Keywords: carcasses, decomposition, invertebrate colonization, Karelia.

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I.A. Skalskaya

Taxonomic and Trophic Structure of Dominating Species in Zooperiphyton of Reservoirs and Streams in the Upper Volga Basin.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: skalskaya@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The structure of dominating zooperiphyton complexes and types of trophic groups of its components varied concordantly depending on environmental conditions that happened due to conservatism of historically formed modes of food acquisition by invertebrates. In reservoirs strong water pollution by suspended matter of anthropogenic origin inhibited development of sponges, bryozoans, Dreissena i.e. typical sessile invertebrates-filterers able to reach the maximum biomass when consuming natural nutritive organisms. In small rivers receiving industrial sewages the surplus of food material in the water column and sediments on substrates oppressed zooperiphyton development and prevented distribution to vacant spatial niches of benthic chironomid larvae of the genus Chironomus which combined the filtration and collection of food particles on substrates. At the same time the role of nematodes and oligochaetes increased. Among them detritophages were dominant. In acid lakes of the Darvin Reserve the role of invertebrates-filterers decreased along with the decrease of the total species diversity of zooperiphyton. In poor zoocenoses the larvae of chironomids and oligochaetes prevailed. The role of predatory larvae of caddis flies, biting flies and nematodes increased. The lability of structural characteristics of zoocenoses is the main modern way of zooperiphyton community adaptation to changes in quality and quantity of the food material under anthropogenic pollution of the aquatic medium.

Keywords: zooperiphyton, taxonomic and trophic structure, waterbodies, streams.

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Ye.S. Smirnova, Yu.V. Gerasimov

The Effect of Environment оn Adaptive Abilities of Fry Roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) (Cyprinidae) During Early Ontogenesis.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: gu@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

In recent years, a considerable decrease in the abundance of fish predators is observed in the spawning tributaries of the Rybinsk reservoir due to the intensive fishing. The lack of encounters with predators before the downstream-migration of the young fish in the absence of predation experience hampers the development of necessary skills of defensive behavior. As a result, after the downstream-migration the juveniles are incapable of adaption to the predation pressure in the reservoir environment and exposed to intensive elimination. The adaptive potential of roach Rutilus rutilus was experimentally studied in siblings raised from the early larval to the late fry stages both in the presence and absence of the predator. It was found that young fish raised under different conditions differ in their adaptive potential in the novel environment.

Keywords: early ontogenesis, behavior, predator, fry roach.

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A.A. Filippov, I.L. Golovanova, A.I. Aminov

Effects of Organic Pollutants upon Fish Digestive Enzymes.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: golovan@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

Effect of organic pollutants of different chemical nature (chlororganic, phosphororganic and stannumorganic compounds, naphthalene, formalin, nitrosoguanidine, glyphosate, metylmercury) on the activity of fish enzymes hydrolyzing the basic food components have been reviewed. The differently directed effects of organic pollutants on the digestive enzyme activity depending on the fish species, a type of hydrolyzed substratum, a range of the pollutant concentration and the experimental conditions are considered.

Keywords: organic pollutants, fishes, digestive enzymes.

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Z.K. Amirova*, I.Ya. Shahtamirov**

Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Tissues of Fish in Rivers of the Chechen Republic.

*Bashkir Republican Research Ecological Center, 450075 Ufa, Pr. Oktyabry, 147, Russia.


**Chechen State University, 364907 Groznyi, ul. Kievskaya, 33, Checen Republic

e-mail: ecocnt@ufanet.ru

Pollution of rivers in the Chechen Republic with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls is studied with the use of several fish species. Pollution of the river net work of Chechnya by xenobiotics was assessed as not very high. A tendency to isomer-specific bioaccumulation of toxicants by different species of freshwater fish was revealed. Higher pollution of the Terek River as compared to its tributary – the Sunzha River is demonstrated. The analysis of possible pollution sources and the ways of pollution spreading in the ecosystem of the region is carried out.

Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, the Terek River, Sunzha River, freshwater fish, pollution.

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T.B. Kamshilova, D.V. Mikryakov, V.R. Mikryakov

The Effect of the Cortisol Analogue and Transport Stress on Frequency of Occurrence of micronuclei in erythrocytes of the Peripheral Blood of Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus L.

Institute for Biology of Inland Waters RAS, 152742 Borok, Russia.

e-mail: mvr@ibiw.yaroslavl.ru

The effect of the cortisol analogue and the transportation on the occurrence of micronucleus in erythrocytes of the peripheral blood of sterlet was studied. Both factors increased the number of fishes with micronucleus and the percentage of aberrant erythrocytes.

Keywords: sterlet, cortisol, transport stress, micronucleus test.

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